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Thursday, July 23, 2015

DETAILED Rajput Record of Jauhar, Saka & Massacre of Rajputs at 3rd Siege of Chittor(1567-68) | Description of Rajput Warriors & OLD pictures of Chittor Fort | Battle of Chittor Part-6




" ~ Garh Tou Chittodgarh - Baaki Sab Garhaiya ~ "
" ~ If there is a FORT to reckon with, it is the FORT of CHITTOR, Rest are JUST Fortresses ~ " 

-- Rajputana Ballad stating that the Fort of Chittor is 'different' from other fortresses.
It cannot be won easily, for it is defended by the bravest of the brave.



Hi All,

We have gone through 5 articles in the Chittor Battle Series. In the last article, we read the detailed description of this war, including the Jauhar of the Rajput women, the Saka of the Rajput warriors and the massacre of civilians in the Fort of Chittor, as mentioned in the Mughal records. The spine-chilling Mughal account of this war showed the tenacious ferocity with which both man & beast engaged in a do-or-die battle for the control over the pride of Rajputana - Chittorgarh. { Link : Battle of Chittor Part-5 }

Now,  let's view the ultimate battle of Chittor from the perspective of contemporary Rajput records & some other chronicles. Numerous pictures and portraits of the Chittor Fort from the 17th, 18th & 19th centuries have also been included in this post, especially at the end, to show the majesty of the fort as well as the the magnetic attraction the fort has held for the historic chronicler or even the curious traveler. 

This post, based on numerous Rajput sources as it is, presents the names of many known and unknown Rajput warriors from the illustrious houses of the 16 superior vassals of Mewar and others who supported Mewar against the Mughals in this war. At the end of this post, their lineage & present-day whereabouts have been included for those discerning readers who wish to know more about these warriors.


" Abhimano dhanam yesham chira jivanti te janaha
abhimanaviheenanamam kim dhanena kimayusha "

 OR

" Those who have wealth of self-esteem, live long life. 
For those who don't have self-esteem, what is use of wealth and long life? "


The post also pays homage to those brave and noble women who believed that their honor as well as the honor of Mewar was more precious than their life. These proud women either chose to die defending their motherland on the battlefield or to perish in the fire of Jauhar rather than being captured & facing dishonor (and worse) at the hands of the invading army. 

The next and concluding part of this Chittor Battle Series will present the Fathnama-i-Chittor, the victory farman of Mughal Emperor Akbar, issued by him after winning this war. It will also compare the resources - weapons, soldiers, etc. of the two combating sides.

Note: 
The details/pictures in this post are extremely gruesome and should be read only by those who can stomach the savagery unleashed in Chittor by the victorious Mughal army. This post does not intend to shock but only report the aftermath of the Mughal victory.


Aftermath of the 3rd Siege of Chittor - A Ruined Temple


Other Posts in this Series

Here are the links to the previous parts of the Chittor Battle Series. Please do read these before reading the present post.  

1. Why did Akbar attack Chittor ? | Part-1
2. Preparation of Rajputs - Battle of Chittor | Part-2
3. Battles BEFORE the Battle of Chittor - At Kumbhalgarh, Rampur, Udaipur, Mandalgarh | Part-3

4. ACTUAL STRUGGLE between Mughal & Rajput Forces - Course of War BEFORE the Jauhar and Saka | Battle of Chittor Part-4 | With explained Portraits from Akbarnama

5. Mughal Record of Jauhar of Rajput Women & Saka of Rajput Warriors at 3rd Siege of Chittor(1567-68) + Mughal Victory Followed by Massacre of Rajput Civilians | Battle of Chittor Part-5 | With Portraits from Akbarnama & personal pictures of Chittor Fort  
7. Fatehnama-i-Chittor, Comparison & Pictures of Mughal-Rajput Weapons, Assessment of Akbar and Maharana Pratap, Old Portraits of Udaipur & Path for the Future Struggle of Mughals - Mewar | LONG Detailed Concluding Assessment..Last Post on Battle of Chittor Part 7
 
History of Jaimal and Patta | HEROes of the 3rd Siege of Chittor



  ***************************

Prologue:


The following verse is a famous but rare Rajputana ballad, which can still be heard from the old timers of Chittorgarh. This ballad has been passed down through several generations. It contains the words of Raja Jaimal Rathore, commander of the Chittor fort during the 3rd siege, conveyed to the Mughal Emperor Akbar by the Dodia Thakur of Lava - Sanda Sihaldar Ji *:


" Jaimal likhe Jawab jad Sun je Akbar Shah
Aan phire Garh Utra Tuta Sir Pat Sah

Hai Garh Mano Ghu Ghani Asur Tere Simhaar
Uncheyea Garh Chittod Ri Bhedi Mohi Deewar
"


The English translation is --


Oh Shahinshah Akbar! Listen carefully the answer of our chief - Jaimal.
You can not set your foot in our pious fort of Chittor, as long as Jaimal Rathore is alive.
Unless you walk over my corpse, you cannot enter our Garh - Chittor.

Because, right now this Garh of Chittor is MINE. 
My master, The Rana - His Majesty has appointed me to take care of this fort.
He has given the keys of this Fort to me.
Forget entering the Fort, as long as i'm alive, the enemy(demon) can't even set it's eyes at my pure fort.
Jaimal is a wall which has to be crossed to enter the Fort of Chittor.



{* More about the Dodia Thakur of Lava can be read later in this post.}



***************************


Points to be kept in mind while reading this post:

Before we start, I want to mention a few points, quite relevant in the context of this post. Do not skip these points.

1. Often, history is considered to be a boring discipline, without any utility. I am talking in the general Indian context. How many parents encourage their children to read "history"? { I am not advocating history teaching here, but just digging into our history. :-P } Or, how many children find reading history an interesting hobby? 

My reasons for reading history are different from those of most people. I believe that many serious problems, which we face today, can be solved or at least understood clearly to a large extent, if we study our past. Reading history not only ensures that we don't repeat the mistakes of the past but also provides us with vital lessons from the experiences of the people who lived in the past. 

2. History should not be viewed with a revivalist sentiment but from a reformist approach. Revenge/retaliation for some injustice/crime committed in the medieval/ancient times is not a feasible solution. The past cannot be changed, but repetition of those mistakes in present/future can be avoided.

3. One should wear faith on one sleeve and humanity on another, ensuring that there is no 'friction' between them. Indeed there is hardly any faith that does not advocate humanity. Think about this!

4. Religious sentiments have been used since a long time for expanding empires or for achieving certain political goals. I quote Karl Marx, whose words explain this point clearly - "Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. Religion is the opium of the people.
 

All these 4 points are related to the present post, as readers will understand while reading the post. Let us start.



View of Chittorgarh, as seen from inside the Fort



***************************


   
The Final Battle - 24th February 1568
Third Siege of Chittor, 1567-68


 The Emblem of Chittor: Shows the Bhil tribals along with the Ranas. These tribals were given this honor in gratitude for their loyal services to Maharana Pratap during his struggle against the Mughals. 


                                                                    *****************************


Let us understand the layout of the Fort of Chittor and the 7 gates that controlled access to the fort, before we read the account of the war...




Layout of the Fort of Chittor and its 7 Gates:





An explanation of the gates of the Chittor Fort, along with those present at the gates during the Saka in this battle, is given below.


a. North : Lakhauta Gate - Special battery of Mughal Emperor Akbar was set up here.
b. East  : Suraj Pol - Defended by Rawat Sain Das Chundavat & Raj Rana Surtan Singh. A battery was set here.
c. South : Chitturi Dwar - Here also a battery was set up by Mughals .

d. West : A unique system of 7 doors - Defended by Jaimal Rathore & Kalla Rathore

Details of the Mughal Batteries can be read here : Battle of Chittor Part-4

The 7 gates or doorways on the west side of the fort were:

1. Paidal Pol
2. Bhairon Pol *
3. Hanuman Pol *
4. Ganesh Pol
5. Jorla Pol
6. Laxman Pol
7. Ram Pol {Last Door which marked the entrance into the Fort. It is 1 of those 3 places in the fort where the most gruesome wars was fought, as the Rajputs staked their entire power in preventing the Mughals from entering in the fort from this last gate. Many pictures were posted in last post. Link:
Battle of Chittor Part-5. Stains of blood survive to this day here.}


* -
A fierce battle occurred between Bhairon Pol (2) and Hanuman Pol (3). In this battle, Jaimal and Kalla took on the Mughals, displaying the rare virtue of courage unto death. An account of this combat, along with pictures, is given later in the post.


Paidal Pol - The First among the 7 doors on the West Side of Chittorgarh
 


Lakshman Pol - Preceding the Ram Pol


Ram Pol - The Door of Lord Ram. It is the site of one the most ferocious combats in the Battle of Chittor. Stains of blood can still be seen here on close inspection.



Also refer to the following picture, possibly the oldest picture of this Fort. The view of the 7 doors on the western side is beautifully represented in this picture. The Fort is encircled by hills on all sides, as can be seen. The Mughal forces stationed their cannons on these hills to attack the fort.


An overview of the Chittor fort by John Fryer, London, 1698


************************


Rajputana and other Accounts 
of 
the Jauhar, Saka & Massacre of Rajputs
at 3rd Siege of Chittorgarh



Mewar is a name synonymous with bravery, honor and pride. Rajputs as a race have been  associated with pride and courage, but those of Chittorgarh seem to have an "extra dose" of it. Chivalry and undaunted heroism ran in their blood. There could hardly be any other royal house whose past had been stained with so much bloodshed for over a 1000 years (starting from Bappa Rawal - 734 AD or early ancestor Guhaditya - 568 AD) ; and who faced wave after wave of invading hordes, yet refused to bow their heads in the service of any other mortal. The Rajputs of this house are known for their strong & fierce love of independence.

Mewar was the only major Rajput kingdom, which refused to surrender to Mughal Emperor Akbar, who was one of the mightiest emperors in the world then. Even after the Mughal Army conquered it,  the people of this region fought back valorously to regain their kingdom, with the major exception of Chittorgarh, from Akbar. But let us reserve that story for another day. 



Fort of Chittor - An Overview with Gaumukh Kund in the Foreground

Beautiful View of Chittor City from the Fort of Chittor - Standing on the Ramparts near the Gaumukh Kund


At present, let us see how these Rajputs fought bitterly to the last man standing, to defend their fort from Mughal invasion and how, when defeat became inevitable, sacrificed their lives rather than bend in humiliating servility before their bete noire.


1. Extracts taken from The Annals of Rajputana, 1826

As usual, i have added my explanations in purple to the extracts, in order to differentiate my views from the original text. Rajputana accounts require us to search other sources in order to be completely understood, as you will observe. This is the reason why my explanations are sometimes longer than the historical text itself..


"
Akbar had just attained his 25th year, and was desirous of capturing Chittor. The site of Akbar's royal camp is still pointed out. It extended from the village of Pandauli (on lake Mansarovar) along the high road to Basai, covering a distance of ten miles. The headquarters of Akbar are yet marked by a pyramidal column of marble, to which tradition has assigned the title of "Akbar ka diwa", or "Akbar’s lamp." *
"

{
* - It is as perfect as when constructed, being of immense blocks of compact white limestone, closely fitted to each other. Old authors mentioned there was a staircase inside it, though, at present,  there is no interior staircase in it. Accurate measurements are: height, 36 ft. 7 in.; 14 ft. 1 in. square at base; 3 ft. 3 in. square at apex. The tower is solid for 4 ft., then hollow for 20 ft., and solid again up to the top. The building appears to be very ancient, though used by Akbar, as mentioned by popular tradition; probably a wooden ladder gave access to the chamber and to the summit. The original purpose of the building  is uncertain. 

This lamp is located 6 miles North-East of Chittor, near Nagari. It marked the centre of Akbar's  camp. Hence, it can be safely concluded that Akbar's camp was spread across 10-12 miles in area.

The Rajput Source - Sisodia Vanshawali Manuscript, F-22(B), states that:- 
 The camp of Akbar was spread across several miles through the 3 villages of Pandauli, Kabara & Nagauri and was surrounded by thick forest on 3 sides & a river on the western side. This was a strategic site in the wide plain lying to the North-East of the Fort of Chittor.

The following is a picture of Akbar's Lamp, taken from the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 
}



Akbar's Lamp, located North-East of Chittor. Picture taken in July 1887.


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which contains the picture of Akbar's Lamp shown above.

"
Akbar sat down before Chittor, the Rana was compelled to quit it; but the necessity and the wishes were in unison. Chittor lacked not, however, brave defenders. 

{
Akbar encamped outside Chittor. Under the circumstances, Rana Udai Singh was compelled by the sabha of Rajput Samants to leave the fort and retreat to safety. 

See more here : Preparation of Rajputs - Battle of Chittor | Part-2

The following lines from the account mention the names of the chieftains who led the various contingents in the battle from the Rajput side. A detailed background of these chieftains is provided at the end of this post for additional reference.
}


Sahidas {refers to Rawat Chundawat} , at the head of a numerous band of the descendants of Chundas, was at his post, ‘the gate of the sun’ {Suraj Pol} ; there he fell resisting the entrance of the foe, and there his altar still stands, on the brow of the rock which was moistened with his blood.


The Chundawats were the descendants of Rawat Chunda of Mewar; see the detailed background of the chieftains at the end of the post for more information about him. 
Rawat Chundawat died fighting the Mughal soldiers at Suraj Pol.  
}

 

Rawat Duda of Madhri led 'the sons of Sanga'.  

{
The "sons of Sanga" are the Sangawats, and not to be confused with the sons of Rana Sanga of Mewar (died 1527). The Sangawats were the successors of Rawat Sanga Ji (died 1574), an uncle of Patta and a direct descendant of Rawat Chunda of Mewar. 
Rawat Duda led the contingent of Sangawats in this battle.
}


The chiefs of :
- Bedhla and Kotharia, descended from Prithviraj Chauhan of Delhi ,
- Parmars of Bijolia ,
- Jhalas of Sadhri ;

They all inspired their contingents with their brave example. These were all the "home" chieftains. 

{
They are known as the home chieftains because they belonged to the 16 superior vassals of Mewar. Details are given at the end of this post.
}



************************


Distinguished amongst the 'Foreign' auxiliaries on this occasion were -

a. another son of Deolia {He was Ishwari Das Rathore, not to be confused with Isar Das Chauhan} who again combated for Chittor, along with

b. the Songara Chauhan Rao of Jalor {I could not get the name. He was from the family of Maharani Jaiwanta Bai Songara Chauhan, mother of Maharana Pratap. He fought along with Ishwari Das Rathore. }

c. Karam Chand Kachhwaha {He was from the Panchnot offshoot of the Amer Rajputs

d. Duda Sadani {He was from the Shaikhavat offshoot of the Amer Rajputs, which was founded in 1471 by Rao Shekha}, 

e. Prince of Gwalior {His name was Salivahan. He was the son of Raja Ram Shah of Gwalior, who married the daughter of Rana Udai Singh. He is known to be the ONLY person of repute who survived the Battle of Chittor because the Rajput Chiefs did not allow him to take part in the Saka. Later, he died in 1576, fighting in the Battle of Haldighati.}

{
In the court of Mewar, the nobles or samants were seated according to the status of their royal houses. There were 16 superior royal houses called 16 Umraos. These 16 vassals sat at 90 degrees angle on the right of the throne of the Ranas in the court. 

'Foreign' auxilliaries refer to those chiefs who were not from these 16 superior vassals of Mewar.

Note the names given in points c and d above. These two chiefs were from offshoots of the Amer Rajputs, who died while fighting on behalf of Mewar. 

These were some of the great Rajput warriors who fought in this battle. Now, let us read about the two brightest stars in the Rajputana firmament, Raja Jaimal Rathore and Patta, whose names are inseparable from that of the Fort of Chittor and its siege by the Mughals.
} 



***************************


Raja Jaimal Rathore and Rawat Patta Chundawat
The Commanders of the Fort of Chittor during the 3rd Siege:

 

""
But the names which shine brightest in this gloomy page of the annals of Mewar, which are still held sacred by the bard and any true Rajput, and immortalized by Akbar’s own pen, are Jaimal of Badnor and Patta of Kelwa, both of the sixteen superior vassals of Mewar. The first was a Rathore of the Merta house, the bravest of the brave clans of Marwar; the other was head of the Jagawats, another grand shoot from Chunda. 

The names of Jaimal and Patta are ‘as household words,’ inseparable in Mewar, and will be honoured while a Rajput retains a shred of his inheritance or a spark of his ancient recollections. Though deprived of the stimulus which would have been given had their prince been a witness of their deeds, heroic achievements such as those already recorded* were conspicuous on this occasion; and many a fair form threw the buckler over the scarf, and led the most desperate sorties **. 

{
* - It means that if Kunwar Pratap had been present there to witness their heroic acts and encourage them, they would have been driven to fight more valiantly. But even in his absence, they fought most courageously. Their deeds of bravery were even recorded by the Mughal chroniclers, as mentioned in the previous post.

** - desperate face to face attack by Rajput troops after coming out from defensive positions. A buckler is a a round shield held by a grip and sometimes having straps through which the arm is passed. It is used for defence. Here, it is meant to convey that many a Rajput warrior (fair form) threw away the buckler (stopped defending himself) and fought the Mughals face to face.  




Suraj Pol - Rawat Chundawat fell here in the Battle of Chittor. 
This gate is the eastern entrance of the Fort and also known as Toran Pol.
When Salumbar {it was the abode of the Chundawat chief, here it refers to Rawat Chundawat} fell at the gate of the sun {Suraj Pol}, the command devolved on Patta of Kelwa. His father had fallen in the last siege, and his mother had survived but to rear this the sole heir of their house. Like the Spartan mother of old, she commanded him to put on the ‘saffron robe{kesariya}’, and to die for Chittor : but surpassing the Grecian dame, she illustrated her precept by example; and lest any soft ‘compunctious visitings’ for one dearer than herself might dim the lustre of Kelwa, she armed the young bride with a lance, with her descended the rock, and the defenders of Chittor saw her fall, fighting by the side of her Amazonian mother.
"


Main Deity in the Kumbh Shyam Temple: Patta died while fighting near this temple.


Kumbh Shyam Temple
Spot marking the place where Rawat Patta Chundavat fell finally in the Battle of Chittor


The Warrior Ladies of Chittor:

{
Patta's mother exhorted him to fight for Mewar. Her name was Rani Sajjan Bai Songara Chauhan. Going beyond the valour shown by the mothers of warriors in all old tales, she joined the combat and even armed the wife of Patta, Rani Jiwa Bai Solanki and took her along to fight in the war.
} 


"
When their wives and daughters performed such deeds, the Rajputs became reckless of life. They had maintained a protracted defence, but had no thoughts of surrender, when a ball struck Jaimal, who took the lead on the fall of the kin of Mewar. His soul revolted at the idea of  ingloriously perishing by a distant blow. He saw there was no ultimate hope of salvation, the northern defences being entirely destroyed, and he resolved to signalize the end of his career. The fatal Jauhar was commanded, while 8000 Rajputs ate the last ‘bira’ together, and put on their saffron robes (kesariya); the gates were thrown open, the work of destruction commenced, and few survived ‘to stain the yellow mantle’ by inglorious surrender.
"


{
When the women and children were engaged in this great sacrifice, the 8000 Rajputs who were fit to bear arms, became ready to sell their lives as dearly as possible, extracting the maximum blood of the enemy, and made a final attempt in their Saka. 

It was NOT a fight for survival. It was a war of honor. For them, it was about repaying the debt of their motherland and protecting her honor for as long as they could. Hails of Har-Har Mahadev and Jai Ekling Ji, the sounds of cymbals, the thumping of terrible war drums, shrieks and screams of barbaric horns resounded the atmosphere. 

Each warrior in the fort wore a face of stern preparedness, which in itself must have daunted the enemy. Rajput accounts mention:
At the daybreak on that desperate day of the 13th of the dark half of Chaitra Vikrami Samvat 1624, the Rajputs were up in arms and doors thrown open by the death-defying inmates.

In spite of the glorious attempt to defend the Fort by the courageous Rajputs, the enemy was at last able to successfully break in through the gates. It was not possible for a force of mere 8000 Rajputs, however brave, to stop the vast Mughal force of more than 60,000 soldiers by the most conservative estimates. Especially when the Mughal army used more than 7,500 kg of explosives to breach the Fort, as seen in the previous post.
}


{
The Heroic Fight by Kalla and Jaimal

a. Reference: Akbarnama , Persian Text, Volume-2, Pg- 405 ; 

This account records an extremely brutal & fierce fight by Kalyan Das Rathore / Kalla , which happened between the Hanuman Pol & Bhairav Pol. Surprisingly, the English translation of Akbarnama has skipped this part of the Chittor War. Abu'l Fazl calls Kalla a notable inspirational hero among the Rajputs.



Hanuman Pol 


There are Rajputana accounts / traditions about the manner in which Jaimal and Kalla fought here. The prominent ones are mentioned here:

b. Oja's Udaipur Ka Itihaas, Volume-I, Pg-415/416 mentions that Jaimal was hit by a bullet shot by Akbar and injured. Despite being wounded, he participated in the Saka & met a heroic death between the Hanuman Pol and the Bhairav Pol. This is the same location where Kalla also fell, as given in the Persian text of Akbarnama. 



Bhairav Pol

 
c. Rajputana tradition maintains that Jaimal was hit by a bullet fired by Akbar from his matchlock - Sangram. He was not able to walk. Hence, he sat on the shoulders of his nephew Kalla. They both wielded swords in both their hands, resembling Lord Chaturbhuj {Lord of 4 arms - a form of Vishnu}. Before going down in the fight, they wreaked a lot of havoc on the enemy.




Lord Chaturbhuj in the sanctum sanctorum of the Chaturbhuj Temple

Chaturbhuj Temple

In this extremely difficult quest of finding the exact details of Jaimal and Kalla's death, one thing, which appears probable on the basis of these accounts is that they both died between the Hanuman Pol & the Bhairav Pol, while fighting a fierce battle.



The Chattri of Kalla Ji Rathore - The Place of His Death
The Chattri of Raja Jaimal Rathore near Kalla's Chattri - The Place of His Death



*****************************



The Third Sack of Chittor / "Tija Sakha Chittod Ra"



Wide View of the Ruins - Chittorgarh


""
All the heads of clans, both home and foreign, fell, and 1700 of the immediate kin of the prince sealed their duty to their country with their lives

{
About 1700 relatives of Kunwar Pratap died in this war. It is quite clear from the earlier description where the names of many warriors were mentioned.



The chief of Gwalior appears to have been the only one of note who was reserved to sell his life for another day of glory. 

{ 
He was the husband of Maharana Pratap's sister & son of Raja Ram of Gwalior. He died in the Battle of Haldighati in 1576.
}
 


Nine queens, five princesses (their daughters), with 2 infant sons, and the families of all the chieftains not at their estates, perished in the flames or in the assault of this ever memorable day. 

Their divinity had indeed deserted them; for it was on Adityawar, the day of the Sun, He shed for the last time a ray of glory on Chittor. 
"

{
It was a Sunday when the final battle was fought.

Countless patriotic Rajputnis, headed by the families of Jaimal Rathore, Patta Chundawat, Isar Das Chauhan & others, preferred perishing by the fire of Jauhar than getting captured by the enemy. They ascended the pyre with serene assurance to the accompaniment of vedic chants & hymns. Their sense of pride had taught them to suppress every tender emotion that stood in the way of their honor and chastity. Even nurslings & infants embraced the burning fire in the arms of their mothers. 



Steps leading to the tunnel. One of the Jauhar sites in the Fort.


The names of some notable Rajputnis who gave up their lives while fighting or in Jauhar are specified in :

a. Rawal Rana Ji ki Vat, F-72(b);
b. Vanshawali Adi Param Shivthi, P-65(b);
c. Suryavansh, F-55(b)

These texts are available in the Bikaner House in Rajasthan, which houses a "treasure" of Rajputana accounts. The names i could obtain till now are :

Rani Sajjan Bai Songara Chauhan - Mother of Patta

The others are Queens whose names are:
1. Rani Jiwa Bai Solanki - Patta's Wife who died fighting
2. Rani Madalasha Bai Shekhawat
3. Rani Sarda Bai Rathore
4. Rani Bhagwati Bai Chauhan

5. Rani Padmavati Bai Jhalia
6. Rani Ratan Bai Rathore

7. Rani Balesha Bai Chauhan
8. Rani Bagdi Bai Chauhan
9. Rani Asha Bai Parmar
 


}



Another Site of Jauhar in the Fort

"
The rock of their strength was despoiled; 
Their temples and the palaces were dilapidated: and,
To complete her (Chittor's) humiliation and his (Akbar's) triumph -- Akbar bereft her of all the symbols of her regality.

a. the nakkaras {Grand kettle-drums, about eight or ten feet in diameter}, whose reverberations proclaimed, for miles around, the entrance and exit of Chittor princes;
b. the candelabras from the shrine of the ‘great mother,’ who girt Bappa Rawal with the sword with which he conquered Chitor; and,
c. in mockery of her misery, her portals....

All taken to adorn his projected capital of Agra.

The 'third sack of Chittor,' was marked by the most illiterate atrocity, for almost every monument spared by Ala-ud-din Khilji in 1303 or by Bahadur Shah in 1535 was defaced, which has left an indelible stain on Akbar’s name as a "lover of the arts, as well as of humanity"

The arts do not flourish amidst penury: the principle to construct cannot long survive, when the means to execute are fled; and in the monumental works of Chittor we can still trace the gradations of genius, its splendour and decay. 

Ala-ud-din’s assault was comparatively harmless, as the care of the fortress was assigned to a Hindu prince after he had won Chittor; and Bahadur Shah of Gujarat had little time to fulfill this part of the Moslim law, maintained with rigid severity by its followers.


"

{
^^These above lines are mentioned in the account. The account wants to throw light on the practice of "idol & palace destruction" after the conquest. Recall these lines mentioned at the beginning of this post - Religious sentiments have been used since a long time for expanding empires or for achieving certain political goals. And, do remember the words of Marx.! 

Besides, after the first two sacks, Chittor possessed both the skill and the means to reconstruct itself; but not so after the third sack. Akbar devastated the fortress and its people so much that the subsequent history of Mewar was a constant struggle for existence. 

a. The grand drums called Nakkaras which used to proclaim for miles around the arrival of the Princes of Chittor were taken to Agra.

b. The huge candelabras from the Kallika Mata ("great mother") Temple were taken to the Dargah of Muin-ud-din Chisti. Some sources say they were taken to Fatehpur Sikri, but I believe it was Muin-ud-din Chisti's Dargah in Ajmer. (Akbar visited this dargah in fulfillment of his vow to do so in the event of conquering Chittor.) 


Kallika Mata Temple Complex

The Kallika Mata Temple is the oldest temple in the fort of Chittor, which was built by the ancestor of the Ranas - Bappa Rawal, who established himself at Chittor in 734 AD. It was mentioned in the last post that this temple was the site of one of the bloodiest battles during the Saka during the 3rd siege of Chittor.

c. The bronze doors of the palaces including the ones from the palace of Rani Padmini were taken to adorn the new capital of Akbar at Fatehpur Sikri.
}


"  
Akbar entered Chittor, when 30,000 of its inhabitants became victims to the ambitious thirst of conquest of this ‘guardian of mankind’. { A sarcastic reference to Akbar, who had ordered the butchering of 30,000 unarmed civilians. }

{
Towards the end of the sack, a terrible misfortune descended upon the fort. A population of 30,000 inside the fort, mostly civilians who had taken little part in the actual battle, was put to death on the orders of the Emperor who seemed to be in a kind of victorious frenzy and ruthless aggression. The invading army flooded through every lane, every house and every temple, not sparing any inhabitant they saw. The horrors continued till afternoon; scarcely any life remained in the miserable fort. Those who still remained were taken as slaves.




Akbar "claimed" the honor of the death of Jaimal by his own hand: the fact is recorded by Abu'l Fazl, and by the Emperor Jahangir, who conferred on the matchlock, which aided him to this distinction the title of Sangram. *

{
* -  “He (Akbar) named the matchlock with which he shot Jaimal - Sangram, being one of great superiority and choice, and with which he had slain three or four thousand birds and beasts.” (Jahangir-nama, Ed. Rogers-Beveridge 45; Ain-i-Akbari, i. 116, 617; Tarikh-i-Badaoni ii. 107.)
}
"


**********************************


The "Sin of the Slaughter of Chittor" / "Chittod Marya ra Paap"

"
When the Carthaginian gained the battle of Cannae, he measured his success by the bushels of rings taken from the fingers of the equestrian Romans who fell in that memorable field. Akbar estimated his, by the quantity of cordons (zunnar) of distinction taken from the necks of the Rajputs, and seventy-four manns and a half (74.5 manns) are the recorded amount. 

To eternize the memory of this disaster, the numerals '74½' are talak or accursed. Marked on the banker’s letter in Rajasthan it is the strongest of seals, ‘for the sin of the slaughter of Chitor’ is thereby invoked on all who violate a letter under the safeguard of this mysterious number. 

He would be a fastidious critic who stopped to calculate the weight of these cordons of the Rajput cavaliers, probably as much over-rated as the trophies of the Roman rings, which are stated at three and a half bushels. It is for the moral impression that history deigns to note such anecdotes, in themselves of trivial import. So long as ‘74½’ shall remain recorded, some good will result from the calamity, and may survive when the event which caused it is buried in oblivion.
"

{
The Battle of Chittor has been compared with the Battle of Cannae, a major battle of the Second Punic War that took place on 2nd August 216 BC in Apulia, in southeast Italy. The army of Carthage, under Hannibal, decisively defeated the larger army of the Roman Republic, under the consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro. It is regarded as both one of the greatest tactical feats in military history and one of the worst defeats in Roman history. Rings were collected from the fingers of their dead soldiers by the defeated party and sent to the victorious army, which poured it on the floor in front of the Punic Senate. The weight of these rings was estimated to be 3.5 bushels.

In Chittor, to assess the scale of his victory in terms of the number of people who were massacred in the fortress, Akbar ordered his men to collect the "sacred threads" from their necks. The collected sacred threads were then weighed and found to be 74.5 manns in weight. It is a traditional belief in Rajasthan since then that this number (74.5) is inauspicious and reminds one of the "Sin of the Slaughter of Chittor", or, in the native language of the people, "Chittod Marya ra Paap"

It can be clearly seen that Akbar's name was tarnished forever due to his barbaric conduct with the civilians of Chittor.

These sacred threads were taken to Agra to proclaim that the Rajput supremacy over Mewar had finally been broken.
}




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Note:
The upcoming accounts are much more gruesome - visually as well as textually.
Caution is advised..





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2. References - 
The Travels Of Peter Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608-1667, Vol. II. 
TRAVELS IN ASIA, 1628-1634, SECOND SERIES, No. XXXV.

It was a custom of the Turks to cut the heads of the enemy soldiers and make "mountains" of them to generate fear among other enemies and also as a means of celebrating their victory.

Many a times, the defeated enemy civilians were "roasted alive in 'special hearths' meant for the celebration", as done in Chittor also, which can be seen in another account given later. Mughals, undoubtedly, followed this custom well into the 17th Century.

Peter Mundy was an official of the British East India Company who was in India during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan - grandson of Akbar. Mundy wrote his memoirs across many volumes, out of which the IInd series was about his experiences in India. In this account, he has given many descriptions of the "Pillars of Dead Men's Heads," which he saw at many places, while travelling in Mughal dominions. 


I have scanned a sketch from that account to illustrate the "kind of pillars," which were made after their victories by the Mughal governors. This sketch can be seen here.



A  Minar  or  Pillar  of  Dead  Men's  Heads,  as  seen  by  Mundy

Some extracts from Mundy's account related to the pillars of heads that he saw in Mughal provinces: 

Page-72:

Mundy says that he saw the heads of dead people on pillars near Agra and also saw their bodies hung up by the heels in a grove of mango trees. He adds - Others had been executed, staked, or "roasted alive." The general condition of the villagers, who were oppressed by the local governors and robbed by " theevish Gacoares," excited Mundy's pity, since it reminded him of the state of " the poore Christians " under the " Tyrannie of the Turks ".

 

Page- 159:

Mundy says that the governor, Abdullah Khan, was said to be [have been] "the cause of the death of over 200,000 persons"*. He says Khan was "a cruel natured and covetous tyrant" .

{

* - Abdullah Khan was a Mughal governor during Emperor Jahangir's reign. This incident refers to the occasion when Abdullah Khan boasted that he had caused over 200,000 infidels to be beheaded, so that there might be two rows of pillars of heads, long enough to run from Agra to Patna. Note that land route distance between Agra & Patna is 800 - 880 km.!!! Details of this incident can be read here:-- Translation of the Madsitu'l Urnard by Mr Beveridge, Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1912, Page- 97 - 105.
}


Page-186:

Next day, near Etawa, for the first time Mundy saw the "actual making" of such pillars of dead heads, " with a great heap of heads lying by, "ready to be immortered" .




********************************


3.  Reference - Storio De Mogor, edited by Irvine, Volume -1, Page-134.


This book contains the travel experiences of Nicollou Mannuci, an Italian, who came to India during the reign of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and lived here up to the reign of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. 

Mannuci mentions in his account:

" Every time that a general won a victory; the heads of the villagers were sent as booty to the city of Agra. After 24 hours, the heads were removed to the imperial highway, where they were hung from the trees or deposited in holes on pillars built for this purpose. Each pillar could accommodate one hundred heads."




*********************************



The references given in point numbers 2 and 3 above clearly describe this barbaric custom, which was followed by the Mughals. 

After winning the battle of Chittor in 1568, Mughal Emperor Akbar also followed the custom of his ancestors. The same kind of pillars of the severed heads of the dead people were built in Chittor. The number of dead was over 30,000.


It is also mentioned in various histories of Rajasthan that, in order to "provoke the Rajputs" to open the doors of their fort and come out to engage in direct combat, the Mughal army made pillars of the heads of dead civilians who were caught and brought from nearby villages. 
This was mentioned in Part-3 of this series. Link : Battles BEFORE the Battle of Chittor - At Kumbhalgarh, Rampur, Udaipur, Mandalgarh | Part-3



                                                     *********************************



4.  Reference - Works of noted historian Mr. Lal, who is an admirer of Mughal Emperor Akbar.  

His account of the Chittor battle throws more light on the war crimes that followed the Mughal victory. This account is self-explanatory.





























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Ironically, one of the few monuments, which escaped the wrath of the victorious Mughal army was the Victory Tower - a mute witness to the resilient spirit of the Mewari Rajputs who continued to struggle against the Mughals till they regained most of Mewar. 


Assessment:

It is said that the devil and the angel both live within the heart of Man. It is up to the mind to determine which of these two powers gains ascendance on any occasion. The devil seems to have clearly won the day in the case of Mughal Emperor Akbar after he conquered the fort of Chittor, the pride of Mewar and the symbol of Rajputana independence and resistance to Mughal rule. 
 
Of all Mughal emperors, Akbar is perhaps the last one from whom such barbarism could be expected. Yet in a major departure from the benevolent emperor the world generally takes him to be, Akbar, in his most ruthless avatar, ordered the Mughal army to let loose all their baser instincts on the hapless civilians present in the fort that fateful day. For almost 9 and a half hours, the savagery continued, most clearly detailed in the extracts above. Over 30,000 civilians were put to the sword. People were dragged out of their homes, abused, cut into pieces, roasted alive in 'specially set hearths' or massacred by other means, as pleased the celebrating soldiers. Not even children were spared. 

For 9 and a half hours, Akbar was in a psychopathic trance-like state, his diamond-studded sword unsheathed, "opening his eyes only rarely to inquire about the reports from the city". No one knows what was going on in his mind, but he seemed to be experiencing tremendous emotions that were causing turmoil within him. He was experiencing an almost sadomasochistic pleasure in hearing the wails of the innocent , for he wanted to teach them a lesson for resisting his army for so long. 
    
As mentioned in the previous post, the Mughal chronicler Mulla Ahmed stated in his account that Akbar wanted to set a precedent by ravishing the Fort of Chittor so that no other Rajput state would dare defy his imperial army. 

Burned Ruins of the Ladies' Palace in Chittorgarh, from 'India and its Native Princes' by Louis Rousselet, 1878


Ruins of demolished temples, towers, hearths and huts of Chittor, which remain even to this day, have preserved the memory of the horrors inflicted on this "fort of forts" that day. Never before nor ever after was there a more monstrous annihilation of an entire population in the bloodstained history of Rajputana. How far was Akbar justified in this senseless shedding of blood is for posterity to decide. The manner in which innocent and illustrious Rajputs were sacrificed at the altar of this inhuman cruelty, merely to please an ego hurt by the resistance offered by the defenders and their refusal to fall at Akbar's feet, excites in our chests the most lively sensations of terror and pity. The immense scale of the decimation of the populace left a deep stain on the memory and character of the Emperor who scarcely deserves the labour of an apology. The triumph of the Great Mughal was indeed sullied by this act of disgraceful bestiality, which was a grave violation of the laws of humanity and justice.


The Fort,  which once glowed with aesthetic beauty, wealth and splendour, was transformed into a charnel house, full of smoke and the stench of dead bodies everywhere. The Mughal fury was the fire which consumed the Rajputs to ashes. The memorable clash between the 2 great powers - the Mughals & the Rajputs - came to a tragic close in the early spring, leaving the surface of the fort scattered with the bones of the slain.

Akbar had left no stone unturned to devastate the resources of Rana Udai Singh. The cream of several houses of the vassals of Mewar died defending Chittor. But this was only a beginning of a new, never-ending struggle between Akbar and his arch rival Maharana Pratap...

The only positive feature of the war was the unflinching loyalty and extraordinary valour shown by the magnificent samants, warriors, and chiefs of the various contingents in resisting the Mughal army's advance for as long as they could, defending the fort from endless waves of Mughal soldiers, preserving the honor of Mewar in life as well as death and presenting an unparalleled example of sacrifice for the motherland. It was truly a superhuman feat to defy the might of the Mughal empire for months, forcing even the Emperor and his chroniclers to record stories of rare courage shown by the Rajputs and to praise their warfare skills. 

Chittor is a paradox. It will be remembered for generations to come for both the savagery of the victor and the nobility of the defeated. Sometimes, the defeated do overshadow the vanquishers through their sheer personality and the force of their ideology. The Battle of Chittor will bear testimony to this forever.     




In the Next Post:

The next post, which will be the concluding part of this Chittor Battle Series, will provide an insight into the Fathnama-i-Chittor, the victory farman of Mughal Emperor Akbar, issued by him after winning this war. It will also contain a comparison of resources - weapons, soldiers, etc. on both the combating sides.





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Epilogue

{
Detailed Background of Rajput Chieftains / Warriors:

Some blog members inquired about the DETAILS of the warriors on the Rajput side during the 3rd siege of Chittor. This section provides the details of the chieftains mentioned in the account earlier as well as some others not mentioned in the account. It has been sourced from multiple references. 

Discerning readers may find this section quite informative.

Ruins of the Palace of Rana Kumbha in Chittorgarh, from 'India and its Native Princes' by Louis Rousselet, 1878



1. Chieftain from Bedhla:

The name of the Chauhan chief of Bedhla who fought in the Saka in the 3rd siege of Chittor has not been confirmed yet. Most probably, his name was Rao Ballu Chauhan

He was the father of Rani Bhagwati Bai Chauhan, one of the queens who performed Jauhar during the 3rd Siege of Chittor. The names of some of the noble women who performed Jauhar are listed later in this post.

Here is a brief introduction to the Bedhla Rajputs. They descended from Prithviraj Chauhan of Delhi (1192). The founder of the Bedhla branch of Chauhans was Rao Chandra Bhan Chauhan, who was a part of the Rajput confedaracy & fought along with Rana Sangram (Sanga) Singh of Mewar against Mughal Emperor Babur, and was killed in battle of Khanua on 17th March 1527. 

Presently, Bedhla Rajputs live in Udaipur. In 2009, the current head of this branch of Chauhans got married to a Solanki princess in Balna (Marwar). 



Interior view in Chittor Fort, by Edward Francis Finden, 1829


2. Chieftain from Kotharia:

The Chauhan chief of Kotharia who laid down his life in the Saka during the 3rd siege of Chittor was Rawat Khaanji Chauhan

The founder of the Kotharia branch of Chauhans was Rawat Jaipal Chauhan. His father, Rawat Manik Chauhan was a part of the Rajput confedaracy and died in the battle of Khanua. 

Rawat Khaanji was the grandson of Rawat Manik.


Rawat Manik Chauhan (grandfather, died in Battle of Khanua, 1527)
|
Rawat Jaipal Chauhan (father, founder of Kotharia Rajputs)
|
Rawat Khaanji Chauhan
(died in the Saka at the 3rd Siege of Chittor, 1568)


Here is a brief introduction to the Kotharia Rajputs. They were the descendants of Hammir Dev Chauhan of Ranthambore, who was a direct descendant of Prithviraj Chauhan of Delhi / Ajmer (1192). 
 

Hammir Dev Chauhan died while fighting the ruler of Delhi Sultanate - Ala-ud-din Khilji, in one of the most famous wars in Rajasthan. This war continued for 2 years, from 1299 to 1301. Ala-ud-din retaliated furiously and proceeded in person against Hammir Dev after his favorite general Nusrat Khan was killed in this battle. The Jauhar & Saka, which occurred after Ala-ud-din's victory, is still remembered in Rajasthan in its ballads. Details of this war can be read from the contemporary accounts of Delhi Sultanate.

Presently, these Rajputs live in Kotharia. The wife of the present head of this house belongs to the house of Baansi. 

The Baansi house is an (Achalawat) offshoot of the Sisodias. It was set up by Kunwar Achal Singh, who was the 3rd son of Kunwar Shakti Singh (who founded the Shaktawat offshoot of the Sisodias). Kunwar Shakti Singh was the younger brother of Maharana Pratap. Kunwar Achal Singh joined hands with Rana Amar Singh & fought against the Mughal forces of Jahangir.


Palace of Rana Bheem & Padmini in Chittor, by Edward Francis Finden, c.1829


3. Chieftain from Bijolia:

Rao Dungar Singh Parmar of Bijolia died while fighting in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor. He belonged to the family of Maharani Ajabde Bai Sa, first wife of Maharana Pratap.



Chaori in Chittor, an engraving by E. Therond, from 'Le Tour du Monde', 1872 {A Chaori is also known as Mandap and is an open temple or a porch / vestibule attached to a temple.}


4. Chieftain from Sadhri:

Raj Rana Surtan Singh Jhala died fighting in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor.

-> His elder brother Raj Rana Assa Jhala and his father Raj Rana Sihha Jhala, died fighting in the Saka during the 2nd Siege of Chittor against Bahadur Shah of Gujarat (1535).

-> His grandfather Raj Rana Ajja Jhala was a part of the Rajput confedaracy and died in the Battle of Khanua.

-> It was not just the brother, father, and grandfather of Raj Rana Surtan Singh Jhala who  sacrificed their lives for Mewar. Even his son, Raj Rana Beeda Singh Jhala, died while fighting from the side of Maharana Pratap, in the Battle of Haldighati 0n 18th June 1576, against the forces of Mughal Emperor Akbar.


-> Raj Rana Surtan Singh Jhala's grandson, Raj Rana Deida Singh Jhala, also died in 1609, fighting from the side of Maharana Pratap's son, Rana Amar Singh, against the forces of Mughal Emperor Jahangir under his able general Abdullah Khan. 


Raj Rana Ajja Jhala (grandfather, died in Battle of Khanua, 1527)
|
Raj Rana Sihha Jhala (father, died in Saka during the 2nd Siege of Chittor, 1535)
|
Raj Rana Assa Jhala (brother, died in Saka during the 2nd Siege of Chittor, 1535) ;
Raj Rana Surtan Singh Jhala (died in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor, 1568) 
|
Raj Rana Beeda Singh Jhala (son, died in the Battle of Haldighati, 1576)
|
Raj Rana Deida Singh Jhala (grandson, died in 1609, fighting against the forces of Mughal Emperor Jahangir under Abdullah Khan)



Temple of Vrij / Krishna , in the fort of Chittor, by E. Therond, from 'India and its Native Princes' by Louis Rousselet, 1878

 
5. Chieftain from Dailwara:

The name of the Rajput chief of the Dailwara branch is not mentioned in this account. But, Jaith Singh Jhala fought in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor. He was the father of Rani Veer Bai Jhala, wife of Rana Udai Singh of Mewar.

-> His father Sajja Singh Jhala died fighting in the Saka during the 2nd Siege of Chittor (1535).

-> His son - the famous Man Singh Jhala, who saved the life of Maharana Pratap, died while fighting in the Battle of Haldighati (1576).


Sajja Singh Jhala (father, died in Saka during the 2nd Siege of Chittor, 1535)
|
 Jaith Singh Jhala (died in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor, 1568)  
|
Man Singh Jhala (son, died in the Battle of Haldighati, 1576)



A close view of the Jain Mokalji Temple, Fort of Chittor, showing sculpture details on the fa├žade; a photo by O. S. Baudesson, 1882


6. Chieftain from Lava:

The Lava branch is not mentioned in this account. But, Dodia Thakur of Lava - Sanda Sihaldar Ji fought in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor.

-> His grandfather, Dodia Karan, was a part of the Rajput confedaracy and died in the Battle of Khanua (1527).

-> His father, Dodia Bhan, died while fighting in the Saka during the 2nd Siege of Chittor (1535).

-> His son, Dodia Bheem, died while fighting in the Battle of Haldighati (1576).


Dodia Karan (grandfather, died in Battle of Khanua, 1527)
|

Dodia Bhan (father, died in the Saka during the 2nd Siege of Chittor, 1535)
|
 
Dodia Thakur - Sanda Sihaldar Ji (died in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor, 1568) 
|
Dodia Bheem (son, died in the Battle of Haldighati, 1576)


The Dodia Thakurs of Lava, normally called 'Dodia Ji' by the Ranas of Mewar, out of regard for them, were close confidants of Mewar since the times of Rana Lakha (1382-1421).  

The reason behind the high regard for the Dodia Thakurs is, as follows. 

The Maharani of Mewar, the mother of Rana Lakha, was on a pilgrimage to Gujarat. Her entourage consisting of other royal ladies was attacked by a well-organised 'band of dacoits'. Dodia Thakur Sihha came to her rescue and fought the dacoits. While he faced the band of dacoits, he asked his 2 sons - Dodia Kallu & Dodia Dhamwal to escort her entourage to safety in their own residence and later back to Mewar. Sihha Ji died while fighting the dacoits, but his sons were able to escort the Maharani of Mewar and her entourage safely back to Chittor. Acknowledging the bravery & selfless service of Dodia Thakur, Rana Lakha granted the jaagir of Lava to his sons, and they had the priviledge of being admitted to the superior 16 vassals of Mewar, and waiting upon the Rana in the Royal Court.



Sharangar Temple at Chittorgarh, a photo from 1910


7. Chieftain from Kailwa:


The well-known Rajput Samant - Rawat Patta Chundavat, who fought in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor, distinguished himself by demonstrating exemplary bravery.

He was a direct descendant of the Mewar Prince Rawat Chunda Sisodia, the founder of the Chundavat offshoot of Mewar. More details of Prince Rawat Chunda Sisodia are provided later in Point No. 9 of this section, while talking about Rawat Chundawat. 

Patta was the grand-son of Rawat Siha Ji, who was, in turn, the grandson of Rawat Chunda Sisodia



Rana Lakha(Mewar, 1382 - 1421)
|
Rawat Chunda Sisodia (Mewar)
|
Rawat Kandal Ji
|
 Rawat Siha Ji (grandfather, an exceptional warrior, died in the Battle of Khanua, 1527)
|
Rawat Jaga (father, died in 1555 in a battle near Udaipur) ; Rawat Naga (uncle, died in the Saka during the 2nd Siege of Chittor, 1535)
|
Rawat Patta Chundavat (died in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor, 1568) 
|
Rawat Kala Chundavat (son, died in the Battle of Haldighati, 1576)


-> His grandfather Rawat Siha was a part of the Rajput confedaracy and died in the Battle of Khanua (1527).

-> His father, Rawat Jaga, died in 1555 while fighting in a battle on the river Som, near Udaipur.

-> His son, Rawat Kala Chundavat, died while fighting in the Battle of Haldighati (1576).

The complete details of Patta and the wars fought by his family can be read here : History of Jaimal and Patta | HEROes of the 3rd Siege of Chittor



  
A close view of the surviving facade of the Mokalji Temple, 1882


8. Chieftain from Bednor:


The well-known Rajput Samant - Raja Jaimal Rathore, who fought in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor, distinguished himself by demonstrating exemplary bravery. He was the head of the Rajput forces in this struggle.

He was a direct descendant of Rao Jodha (1415-1489), the king who founded the city of Jodhpur in 1459. Rao Jodha had a son named Rao Dudha (1440-1515) from his queen, Rani Champa Bai Songara Chauhan. Rao Dudha was given the estate of Merta and established the Merta offshoot of Rathores there.  

Born on 17th September 1507, Jaimal was a grandson of Rao Dudha. He was granted the estate of Bednor by Rana Udai Singh in 1554, in recognition of his exceptional services. 



Rao Jodha (1415-1489, established Jodhpur in 1459)
|
Rao Dudha (grandfather, 1440-1515, founded the Rathore offshoot of Merta in 1461)
|
Rao Vikram (father, Merta, died 1544)
|
 Rao Jaimal Rathore (1507-1568, founded the Bednor offshoot of Rathores, died in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor, 1568 ) ; Pratap Rathore (brother, also died in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor, 1568)
|
Rao Mukund Rathore (elder son, died while successfully defending the Kumbhalgarh Fort during the 3rd Siege of Chittor, 1567-68) 
&
Rao Ram Rathore (younger son, died in the Battle of Haldighati, 1576)
&
Kalyan Das Rathore / Kalla (nephew, also died in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor, 1568 )


The complete details about Raja Jaimal Rathore and the wars fought by his family can be read here : History of Jaimal and Patta | HEROes of the 3rd Siege of Chittor

Presently, the descendants of Raja Jaimal Rathore live in Bednor. The wife of the present head of this house belongs to the house of Pratapgarh (Rajasthan). 

The Pratapgarh house is an offshoot of the Sisodias of Deolia. It was set up by Rawat Pratap Singh in 1698. He was a direct descendant of Rana Mokal of Mewar (1409-1433).  { This was asked by a blog member through the Blogger Contact Form. The query stands answered here. }



Kirti Stambh - Tower of Fame



9. Chieftain from Salumbar:


The well-known Rajput Samant - Rawat Sain Das Chundavat , normally known only as Rawat Chundavat, fought in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor.

Mewar had a unique system of administration. The King was from the family of Ranas and the administrator was from the Chunda dynasty (as mentioned earlier in this section also), and together they managed Mewar. Thus, the Chundas played a major role in taking important decisions.

The founder of this branch was Rawat Chunda Ji. (See also Point No. 7 in this section.) He was the eldest son and heir of Rana Lakha (1382-1421) of Mewar, but he renounced his claim to the throne of Mewar in favour of his younger brother - Rana Mokal (1409-1433). He continued to serve the house of Mewar with utmost loyalty throughout his life. His descendants were honoured by being authorised to sign all important documents of Mewar on behalf of the Ranas. The Chundas became the protectors of the heirs of Mewar and served Mewar with utmost loyalty for many generations.


Rawat Chundavat died in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor on 24th February 1568. His ONLY son,  Kunwar Amar Singh, also died on the same day in the Saka at the Fort of Chittor.



Rawat Chunda ( established Chundavat offshoot of Sisodias at Salumbar in 1421)
|
Rawat Kandal Singh Chundavat (grandfather, died 1473)
|
Rawat Ratan Singh Chundavat (father, died in the Battle of Khanua, 1527)
|
 Rawat Sain Das Chundavat (died in the Saka at the 3rd Siege of Chittor, 1568 )
&
Kunwar Veer Singh (brother, died in the Battle of Khanua, 1527)
Kunwar Kamma Singh (brother, died in the Battle of Khanua, 1527)
Kunwar Sayar Singh (brother, died in the Battle of Khanua, 1527)
Kunwar Beni Das Singh (brother, died in the Battle of Khanua, 1527)
&
Kunwar Khemraj Singh (brother, died in the Battle of Khanua, 1527)
&
Thakur Karam Singh (brother, died in Saka during the 2nd Siege of Chittor, 1535)
&
Thakur Ran Singh (brother, died in Saka during the 2nd Siege of Chittor, 1535)
&
Rawat Duda Chundavat (brother, died in Saka during the 2nd Siege of Chittor, 1535)
| 
Kunwar Amar Singh (ONLY son, died in the Saka during the 3rd Siege of Chittor, 1568)



It can be seen that: 

-> Rawat Chundawat's father, Rawat Ratan Singh, who was a part of the Rajput confedaracy, died in the Battle of Khanua (1527) along with 5 of his brothers.

-> 3 of his brothers died while fighting in the Saka during the 2nd Siege of Chittor (1535).



Water Palace, Chittor, India, December 1878; a watercolor by Marianne North



A Remarkable Story of Unflinching Loyalty and Dedication:

This section on the Rajput warriors  establishes the fact that Mewar had the unflinching support of various houses across several generations, who willingly laid down their lives while  fighting for Mewar in various wars. They rejected a comfortable life and, instead, chose the path of adversities and dangers. They felt pride & honor in being known as the vassals of Mewar, not of the Mughal Empire. Such a story of loyalty, service, and dedication spanning across generations is seldom found anywhere else in history.
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Thanks to Radhika for her contribution to this post.
This article has been posted under the Rajputs and Mughals (Akbar) section of history_geek's BLOG.


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